Solar panels are composed of multi-layer structures, of which P-type and N-type are two common types of photovoltaic panels’ silicon material.
They have some differences in material structure and electronic properties.
This affects the power generation efficiency of solar panels, resulting in uneven prices of solar panels on the market.
What is P-type silicon?
P-type silicon material is doped with P-type impurities (such as boron).
In P-type, boron atoms replace part of the silicon atoms, forming vacancies.
At the same time, the boron atom has a positive charge of one electron.
These positive charges are called holes, so P-type silicon material is also called hole-type. Holes are the main carriers of P-type.
What is N-type silicon?
N-type is silicon material doped with N-type impurities (such as phosphorus).
In N-type silicon material, phosphorus atoms replace the positions of some silicon atoms, forming additional electrons.
These extra electrons are called free electrons.
Therefore, N-type is also called electronic silicon material.
Free electrons are the main carriers in N-type.
What's the difference between them?
The difference between P-type and N-type lies in the type and number of carriers.
In P-type silicon material, holes are the main carriers.
In N-type silicon material, free electrons are the main carriers.
This difference makes P-type and N-type silicon materials have different functions and characteristics in solar panel applications.
In addition to P-type and N-type, photovoltaic silicon materials can also be classified based on crystal structure and appearance characteristics.
Among them, dense materials and cauliflower materials are two common classifications.
What is dense silicon material?
Dense material refers to silicon material with a tight crystal structure and smooth surface.
It has higher purity and lower defect density, making it suitable for manufacturing high-efficiency solar panels.
Dense materials usually have a higher price because their production process is relatively complicated.
What is cauliflower silicon?
Cauliflower material refers to silicon material with an irregular crystal structure and rough surface.
Its production process is relatively simple and low-cost. Cauliflower is commonly used to make low-cost solar panels, but their efficiency is relatively low.
In addition, reinvested silicon materials refer to the recycling of waste materials or used cells generated during the solar panel manufacturing process for reprocessing.
Re-invested silicon materials are characterized by complex composition and a variety of impurities.
Due to the high impurity content of re-dosed materials, the performance and efficiency of the cells are usually lower.
From a purely external perspective, it is no different from a normal solar panel, but if detected by EL equipment, obvious cracks can be seen.
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There are differences in carrier type and quantity between P-type and N-type silicon materials.
Dense materials and cauliflower materials are different in crystal structure and appearance characteristics.
Recycling refers to recycled waste materials or used batteries.
These different types of photovoltaic silicon have different applications and characteristics in solar panel manufacturing and performance.